Education in India is provided by the public sector as well as the private sector, with control and funding coming from three levels: central, state and local. Under various articles of the Indian Constitution, free and compulsory education is provided as a fundamental right to children between the ages of 6 and 14. The ratio of public schools to private schools in India is 7:5.
The central and most state boards uniformly follow the "10+2+3" pattern of education. In this pattern, study of 10 years is done in schools and 2 years in Junior colleges, and then 3 years of graduation for a bachelor's degree. The first 10 years is further subdivided into 4 years of primary education, 6 years of High School followed by 2 years of Junior colleges. This pattern originated from the recommendation of the Education Commission of 1964–66.
Higher Secondary Examination (12th board examination) is a centralized examination for class 12 students in India, Bangladesh, Nepal and Pakistan. All the State School Education Boards, CBSE, CISCE and NIOS conduct exams during the period of March–April every year for students in their affiliated private and public schools. The number of subjects, types of examination (theoretical, practical or both) and grading methods differ among the boards and states. Clearing HSC is mandatory for pursuing higher education or undergraduate courses in India. In India, 10th board examination is referred by SSC (Secondary School Certificate) while 12th board examination is referred by SSSC (Senior Secondary School Certificate). Higher Secondary Certificate. Higher Secondary Examination is called by different names across India. CBSE, CICSE, and state boards of education conduct 12th class examination on their level for class 12 students in their schools. The examination time frame may be the same or different for the boards. Each board issues its separate time table for higher secondary examinations.
In India, board examinations refer to the public examinations that occur at the end of the 9th to 10th grade education (SSC), or at the end of the 11th to 12th grade education (HSC). The scores achieved in these exams are considered very important for getting into universities, professional courses or training programmes, and even possibly in finding employment. After 13 std board examination are available.
State board examinations are variously referred to as Madhayamik, Secondary State Certificate and Higher Secondary Certificate examinations. They are conducted and managed by education boards of different states in the country. They do not take place simultaneously due to the differences between syllabi and the examination itself. The examinations are generally held in the months of February and March, and the results are out in May and June. Students funking for the examinations in November stating their personal details, subjects, and current educational status. Admit cards for the prescribed examination hall are received at the notified cell or their respective schools about 20–25 days prior to the commencement of the exam. Examinations are offered for various fields which include Science, Maths, Social Studies, regional and foreign languages for SSC; Physics, Chemistry, Maths, Biology, Social Studies, basic Computer Science and basic Electronics, IT, Western Classical music and Indian classical music, Economics, Business Studies, English, Physical Education for HSC. Students follow a fixed pattern in choosing the subjects. The exam is conducted only in pen and paper format.
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